Neanderthals, Scandinavian trolls, and troglodytes

PATRICK HUNT Stanford University Neanderthal humans (Homo neanderthalensis) are documented in European contexts for around 430,000 years, according to new studies. The accepted genomic contribution of Neanderthal DNA in modern Homo sapiens from Eurasia, including Scandinavian, Siberian, Asian population and the rest of Europe, with a range of around 2% – 4%, bear evidence to mating between the two human populations.  Whether normative or occasional is less important, but episodic encounters of productive mating—estimates from at least a necessary 300 times—between the two human groups date to at least around 65,000 to 50,000 years ago in the Balkans and elsewhere, although some suggest earlier intermating also going back at least 100,
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Patrick Hunt

Award-winning archaeologist, author, and National Geographic grantee Patrick Hunt earned his Ph.D. in Archaeology from the Institute of Archaeology, University College London, and has taught at Stanford University for nearly 30 years. Patrick directed the Stanford Alpine Archaeology Project from 1994 to 2012, and has continued project-related fieldwork in the region in the years since. His Alps research has been sponsored by the National Geographic Society, and he frequently lectures for National Geographic on Hannibal and the European mummy nicknamed Ötzi the Iceman. He is also a National Lecturer for the Archaeological Institute of America, as well as an elected Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society and the Explorers Club. He is the author of 21 published books, including the best-sellers Ten Discoveries That Rewrote History and Hannibal. He has a lifelong love of the Alps, having lived there for several months each year since 1994.

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